This article is meant to give a rough overview of promotion actions. It is intended to discuss
For the implementation of a new action, please refer to the references section.
Now, from a customer's perspective the action represents the act of giving a discount or rebate, e.g., a gift, if the given basket meets the corresponding rule's condition. Without an action a promotion would never have an effect on basket calculation. However, from a programmer's and Commerce Management user's point of view an action not only comprises its execution but also its configuration. This configuration sometimes turns out to be quite complex.
As outlined in the Cookbook - Promotions (valid to 7.7), in order to introduce a new action to the system, a descriptor together with related configuration templates and an executor have to be implemented. Roughly speaking, the descriptor contains all properties, i.e., parameters that are used to describe, i.e., configure the action, whereas the executor mainly contains an
execute() method which is used to apply the action to a given basket whenever the conditions to do so are fulfilled. The action configuration is done in the Commerce Management application whereas action execution is triggered by basket calculation in the storefront.
The promotion framework allows to create more complex promotions coming with a set of rules, e.g., if step 1 is fulfilled, discount 1 will be granted and if step 2 is fulfilled, discount 2 will be granted, and so on.
The calculation algorithm to apply a promotion evaluates the rules top down and always takes the first rule that matches. Left over rules will not be evaluated.
It is not possible to configure one promotion with multiple actions, e.g., providing a item percentage off discount and a free shipping discount by entering one promotion code.
To configure such multiple actions multiple promotions need to be combined with each other.
Different actions or action types come along with different action descriptors. Each and every promotion action descriptor inherits from class
PromotionActionDescriptor. In this class the four configuration parameters that are common to all actions are defined and added to the list of configuration parameters of each action:
HasMaxPrice, constraint: value at least 0.01
HasMaxApplications, constraint: value at least 1
MaxPrice denotes an upper bound for the amount of money to be granted by execution of the action for a given basket/order. So, parameter
MaxPriceValue is used to specify the upper bound, and parameter
HasMaxPrice serves for activating this bound.
Example: Assume that
MaxPriceValue is $20. Furthermore assume that the action is something like "50 percent off on order total" and the given order total is $1000. Then execution of the action for this order will yield a discount of no more than $20 instead of $500.
MaxApplications denotes an upper bound for the number of times a discount or rebate is allowed to be applied to an order or to an item, depending on the action's application level being the whole order or single items.
Example: Assume that
MaxApplications is 5.
Not in all cases the discount calculation with respect to
MaxApplications is that simple. However, in order to understand the calculation in other cases, you just have to keep three rules in mind.
In the Commerce Management application the four parameters are displayed as follows.
An explanation of which parameter can be found where is here:
Item Value Off
The decision how often an item value off discount is applied depends on multiple settings. If the discount is configured to be applied to all items, the setting of
MaxApplications is invalidated. If the action is configured to be applied to one cart item, then the exact amount of items defined with MaxApplications is discounted.
Item Percentage Off
The same rules apply when the discount is percentage off instead of value off.
Order Value Off
An order value off discount will be applied depending on the rebate condition and the setting of
MaxApplications. Let's say, we have a minimum order value condition of 50$. The discount is Order Value Off $ 5.00, the maximum number of applications per order is 4.Then the discount depends on your order value, from 50$ to 99,99$ it will be applied one time, from 100$ to 149,99$ two times and so on until the max application value is reached (in this case 4 times maximum). If there is no value for
MaxApplications configured the rule applies unlimited times.
Order Percentage Off
For an order percentage off discount the rule Percentage off on order total is applied at most once described above always applies.
A discount that is not necessarily to be applied to the cart as a whole but rather to a specific subset of cart items, where the subset specification is based on the condition, is called a conditional discount. Conditional discounts are represented by the class
ConditionalDiscount which directly inherits from
PromotionActionDescriptor. The configuration parameters added by
ConditionalDiscount are the following:
Double, constraint: value at least 0.00
ConditionalItemsSelection is the crucial parameter used to specify the subset of cart items to which the discount is meant to apply. It can take four values with corresponding set interpretation:
InCart: (the discount applies to) all cart items.
Conditional: all cart items which meet the condition of the rule (see Background above).
NextConditional: all cart items which meet the rule's condition but do not count towards the minimum number of included items.
Selected: all cart items that belong to a group of products that you can define explicitly.
The minimum number of included items refers to a special rule condition: Apply the discount if there is a minimum number of items in the cart, e.g., three items. The three items in the cart that the cart calculation algorithm takes as a proof for the condition being fulfilled count towards the minimum number of items.
ConditionalItemsMinPrice is used to define a price bound such that a cart item is not discounted if its price is below the bound. For example, if the bound is defined to be $20, then only items with a price of at least $20 are discounted.
In the back office the two parameters look like this:
Here is an explanation of which parameter is found where:
Conditional discounts require a condition with non-empty item inclusions. This could be a promotion condition for the rule (1) or a condition within the action (2). If there is no condition given or the condition produces an empty inclusion list, the promotion will not be applied.
Examples for supported condition types:
A conditional discount that allows for a restriction with respect to the number of cart items it can be applied to is called item discount. The descriptor class of this type of action, class
ItemDiscount, directly inherits from class
ConditionalDiscount and adds three configuration parameters:
Integer, constraint: value at least 1
The configuration parameter
ItemsAffected is used to determine whether the discount is applied to all cart items or to a limited number of cart items. The values it can take and their respective interpretations are the following:
All: no restriction with respect to the number of cart items to be discounted.
Amount: the number of cart items to be discounted is restricted by the value of configuration parameter
PriceAffected helps to determine the order in which the cart items are discounted. Two different orders are supported at the time being:
LowestPrice: ascending with respect to item price.
HighestPrice: descending with respect to item price.
LowestPrice is more advantageous for the seller as it can help to reduce the cost caused by promotion actions. In contrast to this, the value
HighestPrice is more beneficial for the consumer because the discount granted is likely to be higher. Of course, the consumer's benefit may in the long term be profitable for the seller, too.
In the Commerce Management, the three parameters are displayed as follows:
ItemPercentageOff stands for an item discount which grants a certain percentage discount on the item price in the cart. As an item discount, its corresponding descriptor class
ItemPercentageOffDiscount directly inherits from class
ItemDiscount and adds just one self-evident configuration parameter to the various parameters of the item discount:
Double, constraint: value a valid percentage, i.e. between 0.01 and 100
Among all descriptor classes mentioned so far, the class
ItemPercentageOffDiscount is the first that fully describes a certain action and not only adds some configuration parameters that are common to a type of action. Here, no further specialization is done.
The following screenshot shows the complete item percentage off discount configuration webform in Commerce Management with annotations:
ItemTargetPriceDiscount stands for an item discount that sets the price of cart items to a fixed lower value - if possible. Its descriptor class,
ItemTargetPriceDiscount, adds the following configuration parameter to those of the item discount:
Cart items with lower price than the target price, of course, do not get a higher price if the action is applied. The price of those items remains unchanged. Nevertheless, they are treated as if they were discounted. This has an exceptional effect in the following situation. Assuming that the action is defined to be "Item target price is $100 to be applied to 2 cart items, the maximum number of applications per order is 1", and
LowestPrice. If there are three items in the cart with price $70, $50, and $150, respectively, then action application has no visible effect on the cart because the two items discounted have a price lower than the target price. In order to prevent lower price items from being target price discounted you have to set
ConditionalItemsMinPrice to the same value as
So, item target price has to be applied with care. Another argument for applying this action with care is the absence of an upper bound for the price of a discounted item. In principle a cart item that costs $1.000.000 can be set to a target price of $1. This can, of course, be prevented by setting
Selected and solely selecting suitable products.
The back office item target price discount configuration webform is not much different from the one of the item percentage off discount shown above. The only difference is that a target value can be set instead of a percentage value.
ItemValueOffDiscount stands for an item discount which reduces the item costs by a fixed value. Its descriptor class,
ItemValueOffDiscount, adds the following configuration parameter to the list of item discount parameters:
In case a cart item costs less than the discount, its price is simply reduced to zero.
The webform of the item value off discount differs from the one of the item percentage off discount simply in that the parameter
ValueOff can be set instead of parameter
Of all actions implemented so far shipping discounts are the most complex ones. On the one hand this is due to the fact that each of them can be configured to take effect on one of three levels: item, order, or bucket. On the other hand it is because a variety of different shipping methods and shipping regions can be configured in such a way that the discount only applies if the choice of shipping method and region in the cart corresponds to those configured for the action.
Shipping discounts are conditional discounts, and as each of them potentially can take effect on one of the three levels item, order, and bucket, the descriptor class of shipping discounts,
ShippingDiscount, directly inherits from class
At the moment the class
ShippingDiscount adds the following configuration parameters:
Boolean; depending on
Integer; depending on
ItemRestriction, constraint: value at least 1
Collection; depending on
Collection; depending on
TargetAffected is required to determine the discount's level of effect, and hence, can take one of three values:
Order: the order as a whole is discounted.
Bucket: the discount is applied bucket per bucket.
Items: discount application on item level, i.e., item per item.
Solely in the case where the discount's level of effect is
AffectedItemsNumber come into play. Then the role of these parameters is exactly the same as of the parameters
AffectedItemsNumber defined for the item discount, respectively, with the only difference that
ItemRestriction takes a
Boolean value whereas
ItemsAffected takes one of the two strings All and Amount.
The only configuration parameter that an item discount has and a shipping discount on item level does not have is
PriceAffected. To introduce this parameter for shipping discounts, too, may be a reasonable new feature. Of course,
PriceAffected for shipping discounts would have to relate to the shipping costs rather than to the item costs.
MethodsAffected serves for determining whether to apply the discount for all shipping methods or for a selection of them. Similarly, parameter
RegionsAffected serves for determining whether to apply the discount for all shipping regions or just for a selection of them. Therefore the two values that these parameters can take are
with the obvious meanings.
The related parameters
ShippingRegions are, of course, effective if and only if value
Selected is configured. In this case
ShippingMethods stores a
Collection of selected shipping methods, and
ShippingRegions keeps track of the configured selection of shipping regions.
The following three shipping discount specializations are completely analogous to the corresponding specializations of the item discount. The difference is that the discount is granted rather for shipping than for item costs, and the level of effect can be either item (shipping), bucket (shipping), or order (shipping).
See Item Percentage Off.
The following figure shows the shipping percentage off discount configuration webform with annotations:
The webforms of the remaining shipping discounts are completely analogous.
See Item Target Price.
See Item Value Off.
Non-conditional discounts apply to the order/cart as a whole, and hence, their descriptors inherit directly from
PromotionActionDescriptor. Other than the above shipping discounts the non-conditional discounts implemented so far tend to be quite simple and their webforms are self-explanatory.
The following two specializations are achieved in analogous manner to the corresponding specializations of the item discount, and hence, do not have to be described in detail. In order to understand the effect of these discounts, you just have to keep in mind that they are applied to the cart as a whole.
See Item Percentage Off.
See Item Value Off.
A free gift discount grants a configured number of selected products added to the cart as gift, where the number of gifts added can be regulated by means of the above-mentioned configuration parameters of the class
PromotionActionDescriptor, see Actions and Action Types Available.
We distinguish between two kinds of free gifts. An automatic gift visibly appears in the cart whereas the hidden gift is invisible to a consumer who puts products into a cart.
The descriptor classes of both gift types add a parameter:
Integer, constraint: value at least 1
which is used to determine the number of times the cart calculation algorithm attempts to add each of the selected gift products to a single cart.
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